A typical configuration for a small home solar power and storage system includes a 500W photovoltaic panel with an 18V output, a 12V/50A solar charge controller, a 12V/210Ah lithium battery pack, and a 1000W inverter. Here are some guidelines for selecting and configuring the components.
1. Choose the solar charge controller
To ensure compatibility with the 18V photovoltaic panel and the 12V battery pack, a 50A charge controller is recommended. The maximum continuous charging current of the 500W panel with a 12V battery is 42A, so a 40A controller would be undersized.
The parameters of the solar charge controller should be set as follows:
- Under-voltage protection: The controller's under-voltage protection value should be higher than that of the lithium battery protection board, to ensure the battery's cycle life. For example, if using a 12V LiFePO4 battery pack, which has a protection voltage of 8.4V, the controller's under-voltage protection should be set at 9V.
- Over-current protection during charging: If the rated continuous current of the controller is 50A, the over-current protection during charging should be set at around 55A, with a delay time of 3 seconds. If the charging current exceeds 55A for more than 3 seconds, the controller will cut off the charging circuit to protect the system from damage.
- Overload and short-circuit protection: The overload protection value should be set at approximately 1.2 times the rated current, with a delay time of around 30 seconds, and the short-circuit protection value should be set at twice the rated current (170A) with a microsecond-level delay time for faster response.
2. Choose the inverter
For a 500W photovoltaic panel, a 1000W inverter is sufficient to provide AC power. The output current of the inverter is rated at around 85A, which should be within the range supported by the charge controller's overload protection setting.
3. Deciding whether or not to connect to the on grid
The home solar power system can be designed as either an off-grid or grid-tied system depending on your needs and budget. Off-grid systems require energy storage in batteries, while grid-tied systems do not. With a grid-tied system, excess electricity generated by the solar panels during the day can be sold back to the utility company, reducing your energy bill.
In summary, a small home solar power system with a 500W photovoltaic panel, a 12V/50A solar charge controller, a 12V/210Ah lithium battery pack, and a 1000W inverter can be an effective way to generate and store energy for daily use. By following these guidelines, you can configure the components for optimal performance and longevity.
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