The manufacturing process of solar panels | Demuda

March 22, 2024

The manufacturing process of solar panels is intricate and precise. Here's a brief overview of the main steps involved:

1.Preparation of Silicon Wafers: The primary material for solar panels is silicon. First, high-purity silicon is extracted from silicon ore and undergoes refining processes such as smelting to convert it into multicrystalline or monocrystalline silicon. Subsequently, silicon blocks are sliced using sawing techniques to form thin wafers of the desired dimensions.

2.Surface Treatment: To enhance the light absorption efficiency of solar panels, the surface of the silicon wafers needs to be treated. This step involves removing impurities, increasing reflectivity, and creating a larger light-trapping surface area. Common surface treatment methods include chemical etching, sputtering deposition, and fabrication of nanostructures.

3.Deposition of the Passivation Layer: A passivation layer is coated onto the silicon wafer, typically made of materials like aluminum oxide or titanium dioxide. This layer aids in improving carrier separation and reducing reflection losses.

4.Fabrication of Contact Electrodes: Metal electrodes are formed on both the positive and negative sides of the silicon wafer, usually using conductive materials like aluminum or silver. These metals are deposited onto the silicon surface through techniques such as evaporation, printing, or other methods.

5.Encapsulation and Lamination: The prepared solar cell chips are encapsulated and laminated to protect them from environmental and mechanical damage. Common encapsulation materials include polymers and glass.

6.Testing and Quality Control: Rigorous testing and quality control are performed on the manufactured solar panels. This includes performance tests, reliability tests, and visual inspections. Note that the above steps outline the basic manufacturing process for solar panels; there may be additional detailed steps and technological improvements during actual production. Different manufacturers and technology routes may vary, but these steps generally constitute the core manufacturing process of solar panels.

7.Classification of Process Routes: There are various manufacturing process routes for solar panels.

Here are several common process routes:

1.Crystalline Silicon (Crystalline Silicon) Process: Crystalline silicon is one of the most commonly used materials for solar panels. This process employs either multicrystalline or monocrystalline silicon as the base material, undergoing steps such as cutting, cleaning, wafer preparation, surface treatment, diffusion, and metallization to manufacture the cells.

2.Thin-Film Solar Cells (Thin-Film Solar Cells) Process: Thin-film solar cells utilize non-crystalline silicon, copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS), or perovskites to create thin film layers. Compared to the crystalline silicon process, this method has a simpler and more cost-effective production process.

3.Organic Solar Cells (Organic Solar Cells) Process: Organic solar cells use organic semiconductors, such as polymers or small-molecule organic compounds, prepared via flexible substrates and printing technologies. This process offers advantages of lightweight flexibility and low cost.

Perovskite Solar Cells (Perovskite Solar Cells) Process: Perovskite solar cells are an emerging technology that have rapidly advanced in recent years, employing materials with a perovskite structure to form thin film layers. This process holds promise for high efficiency and low cost, although its stability still requires further improvement.

Each process route has its unique characteristics and applications, and different manufacturing processes cater to varying requirements. As technology continues to advance, so does the evolution and innovation of solar panel manufacturing processes.

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