What is the function and principle of the MPPT controller for the off grid power solar system??? | Demuda

May 15, 2023

Off-grid solar power systems require a solar controller, which is an important component of the system. Today, we introduce an MPPT solar controller that is very suitable for unmanned projects. Unmanned, as the name implies, requires no human supervision after installation. Inspectors may take a month or more to arrive. Such projects are often located in relatively remote areas, such as forests, islands and other remote areas that have similar characteristics: 

1. Rarely visited by people. 

2. Inconvenient electricity supply, and the cost of setting up an electricity network is too high. 

3. High transportation costs. 

In the past few years, diesel generators were commonly used, but the transportation of diesel fuel is very inconvenient, and the cost of each transport is higher than the price of oil. In recent years, diesel generators have gradually been replaced by solar power generation. Solar power has irreplaceable advantages. With a one-time investment, the cost of subsequent diesel fuel transportation can be saved, which is very cost-effective. 

However, good times will not last long. Due to typhoons, rainy weather, or other factors, the daily solar power generation will be reduced. Over time, the batteries will run out of power and the solar controller will not start. When the solar controller cannot be started when the sun is shining, the battery cannot be charged, which makes the entire solar power generation system unusable. In the past, we encountered this situation and had to send someone to inspect and repair it, remove the battery, and pull it to a place with electricity, so that it can be used. The charger charges the battery, and after the battery is fully charged, it is reinstalled. This would generate a lot of costs and waste labor. 

Our controller can solve this problem. We adopt market-leading technology and precise algorithms to launch a new generation of MPPT solar controllers. This controller can be dual-started, one route is powered by the battery to provide power for starting the controller, and the other route can be powered by solar energy to start the controller, truly achieving unmanned operation, and can be recharged as long as there is sunshine, which will never run out of power. 

MPPT principle 

To charge the battery, the output voltage of the solar panel must be higher than the current voltage of the battery. If the voltage of the solar panel is lower than the voltage of the battery, the output current will approach 0. Therefore, for safety reasons, when the solar panel is manufactured, the peak voltage (Vpp) of the solar panel is about 17V, which is set according to the standard when it leaves the factory at an ambient temperature of 25℃. When the weather is very hot, the peak voltage of the solar panel Vpp will drop to about 15V, but in cold weather, the peak voltage Vpp of solar energy can reach 18V. 

Now, let's go back and compare the difference between the MPPT solar controller and the traditional solar controller. The traditional solar charge and discharge controller is a bit like a manual gearbox. When the engine speed increases, if the gearbox does not respond, it will inevitably affect the speed. But for the MPPT solar controller, the charging parameters have been set before leaving the factory, which means that the MPPT controller will track the maximum power point of the solar panel in real time to maximize the efficiency of the solar panel. The higher the voltage, the greater the power output that can be achieved through maximum power tracking, thereby improving the charging efficiency. Theoretically, solar power generation systems that use MPPT controllers will be 50% more efficient than traditional systems, but according to our actual tests, due to the influence of surrounding environment and various energy losses, the final efficiency can also be improved by 20%-30%.

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