What is the role and difference of solar controllers?? | Demuda

Popular solar controllers on the market mainly include ordinary solar controllers, PWM solar controllers and MPPT solar controllers.

March 21, 2023

The full name of solar controller is solar charge and discharge controller, which is an automatic control equipment used in solar power generation system to control multiple solar cell arrays to charge batteries and battery to power the load of solar inverters. It stipulates and controls the charging and discharging conditions of the battery, and controls the solar cell components and the electric energy output of the battery to the load according to the power demand of the load, which is the core control part of the entire photovoltaic power supply system.


The role of the solar controller


The basic function of the solar controller is to control the battery voltage and turn on the circuit, when the battery voltage rises to a certain extent, stop the battery charging.

Controllers are used in most photovoltaic systems to protect the battery from overcharge or overdischarge. Overcharge may vaporize the electrolyte in the battery, causing failure, and battery overdischarge will cause premature battery failure, overcharge and overdischarge may damage the load, so the controller is one of the core components of the photovoltaic power generation system, but also the main part of the balance system BOS (Balance Of System).


In simple terms, the role of solar controllers can be divided into:

1. Power adjustment function.

2. Communication function: simple indication function and protocol communication function, such as RS485 Ethernet, wireless and other forms of background management.

3. Perfect protection function: electrical protection, reverse polarity protection, short circuit protection, overcurrent protection, overcharge protection, overdischarge protection, etc.


The difference between solar controllers


Popular solar controllers on the market mainly include ordinary solar controllers, PWM solar controllers and MPPT solar controllers.

The working principle of ordinary solar controller is to directly hang the output of the solar panel to the battery port, and disconnect it when the battery is sufficient, because of the internal resistance of the battery, it is difficult to fully charge the battery, and the solar panel is not fully utilized, and the charging conversion efficiency is only 70-76%.

PWM refers to pulse width modulation, PWM solar controller uses the digital output of the microprocessor to control the analog circuit, is a method of digital encoding of analog signal electricity. Controlling the analog circuitry digitally can significantly reduce the cost and power consumption of the system, and the charging conversion efficiency is 75-80%.


PWM solar controllers

MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) refers to the maximum power tracking, MPPT solar controller can detect the power generation voltage of the solar panel in real time, and track the highest voltage and current value (VI), so that the system charges the battery with the maximum power output, MPPT tracking efficiency is 99%, and the power generation efficiency of the whole system can be as high as 97%.

MPPT solar controllers

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